عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Hafez Shirazi’s Religious Experience Based on Gelak and Stark’s Theory
A. Bagheri Khalili* S. Ghahharpour Gatabi**
The religious challenges in the modern world and the sociologists' defense of social performance of religion lead to the formation of the sociology of religion in the field of religion studies and make the researchers of this field propose some ways to make religion practical and show its practicality in social performances. Thus, from this perspective, religion is considered multidimensional. Gelak and Stark's theories are considered as influential theories in this field. Five dimensions are considered for religion in their theory: one is related to belief, another one is ritual, the third one is experimental, the forth one is mental and the fifth one is consequential. Religious experience is a common feature in all religions and is the essence of religion. In religious experience the emphasis is on emotion which is the deep source of religion. In other words, the experimental dimension of religion refers to the way one feels God in his heart. Gelark and Stark present four factors for religious experiment: recognition, attention, faith, and fear and mostly study their social applications. Hafez Shirazi, as a Muslim and a mystic poet, has religious experience. Hafez' understanding is based on intuition and love. Love in Hafez’ experience creates the most stable social system which is based on human relations leading to pray, awareness and balance in social interactions. Faith shows us how to behave and gives meaning to life. Justice and practicality are two important functions of Hafez's social religion. Fear has no way in religious experience of Hafez and he replaces it with hope, since fear associates with future while Hafez seizes the day and appreciates living at the present moment.
Key words: religious experience, Hafez, Gelak and Stark, recognition, attention, faith, hope.
* Associate Professor of Persian Language & Literature, firstname.lastname@example.org
** M.A. of Persian Language & Literature, Afarinesh_1385@yahoo.com