عنوان مقاله [English]
Focalization in the Narrative Poetry of Nima Yushij
F. Arab Yusofabadi* Z. Davar**
Nima Youshij is a contemporary poet whose collection of poetry contains 171 poems in which the narrative focalization techniques have been exploited. The main goal of this study is to discover and analyze different types of focalization in these poems based on the position of focalizer and its continuity. For this purpose, narrative poems of Nima Yushij were analyzed using a descriptive – analytical approach. The results indicate that from the perspective of focalizer, in most narrative poems of Nima, the focalizer adopts a panoramic view to focalize all events. The majority of poems are dominated by the external narrator- focalizer. In these poems, the infinite knowledge of external narrator represents deeds, words and thoughts of others. A vast share of Nima’s narrative poems are characterized by a biased and introspective emotional component. In fact, most of narrative poems of Nima serve as a venue for expression of the narrator’s views, which are demonstrated from a vantage point. With regard to the continuity of focalization in these poems, it was concluded that most narrative poems of Nima were underlined by a permanent focalization in which the narrator remained the same until the end of narration.
Keywords: narrative poems, external focalization, internal focalization, Nima Yushij
* Assistant Prof. of Persian Language & Literature, firstname.lastname@example.org
** MA in Persian Language & Literature, email@example.com