عنوان مقاله [English]
Mystical Poems in Constitution Period (Mashrute)
A. Razi* H. Gholizadeh**
In Constitution period (Mashrute), because of the emergence of modernism and the influence of western social thoughts, mysticism and mystical poems were marginalized, though many mystical poems are found in this period. This paper tries to analyze the status of mystical poems in this specific period. This paper studies the crucial factors causing the intellectuals' avoidance of mysticism; this paper also studies the reasons why mysticism was marginalized at that time. Investigating the prominent works of important poets, this paper studies the changes which happened in the mystical concepts of that time. These poets are divided into three groups: sufis, religious scholars, and poets. Poets are also divided into three groups: the first group includes those who follow the tradition of classical Persian poems and create not only revolutionary poems but also mystical ones. The second group includes those who do not pay much attention to mystical poems, and the third one includes those who completely deny mysticism and criticize it. The last group opposes mysticism because of sufis' inclination towards individuality, their seclusion, their avoidance from politics, their self-centered world-view, their disapproval of reasoning, their approval of marginalization of women in the society, their propagation of succumbing and of the feeling of satisfaction, and finally their negligence to job and working. This paper shows that mystical thoughts and concepts were still in the minds of some poets, though mysticism had lost its importance at that time.
Key words: The poetry of Constitution period (Mashrute), Mysticism, modernism, Mystical literature.
* Associate Professor of Persian Language & Literature, firstname.lastname@example.org
** Ph. D. Candidate of Persian Language & Literature, email@example.com