عنوان مقاله [English]
The Role of Pseudonym in Hafiz's Praising Sonnets
A. Heidari* M. Dozham**
With the development of sonnets and the decline of odes, sonnet played the role of odes instead, in praising and glorifying people in power, since poetry had to maintain its relationship with the royal court. Eulogy, in the form of a sonnet, can be found more in the Divans of poets who have written only in the form of sonnets. Like many other poets, Hafiz of Shiraz has eulogized some kings, and ministers in his sonnets. His eulogies are different from other poets' eulogies; in many cases the praising lines sound artificial and they are not in harmony with the rest of the lines of the sonnet. Frequently, by mentioning the name of the praised man along with his own pseudonym in two hemistiches, he tacitly shows the greatness of the praised man; so, perhaps because of this, in some of his praising poems, Hafiz mentions his pseudonym in the last two hemistiches or the penultimate. Or probably instead of mentioning his pseudonym, he mentions the pseudonym of the praised man and sometimes he mentions it, at the end of the sonnet. This paper tries to show the importance of the praised man and his role in Hafiz' eulogies, based on the place of the pseudonyms in the lines of his sonnets.
Key words: Hafiz, Sonnet, Eulogy, praised man
* Associate Professor of Persian Language & Literature, firstname.lastname@example.org
* M.A. Student of Persian Language & Literature, email@example.com