عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the ways to know the depth and richness of Hafiz's sonnets can be the use of new theories; therefore, in the present article, Hafiz's collection of humorous and auto-biography sonnets has been studied and analyzed using the theory of "Halliday's systematic functional linguistics", which is widely used in the analysis of spoken, written, literary and stylistic texts. In examining and analyzing the stylistics of literary texts, this theory seeks to examine the common values between the audience and the producer of the text (spoken or written), analyze the linguistic interactions between the speaker's abstract presence and the audience, and how to affirm or reject, passion and excitement, evaluate the praise and criticism, and also the style and method used to influence the audience, and evaluate the communication norms in the text. “Halliday's Theory of Systematic Linguistics is functional, because it is based on meaning, and is grammatical because it gives a semantic interpretation of linguistic forms, and is ultimately systematic because it is an intertwined network of semantic and grammatical choices.”(Majidi, 1390: 186). Linguistics, On the other hand, this linguistic theory is a semantic based through which Holliday seeks to explore specific meanings using general words and meanings through grammar, and to identify language tricks.
Methodology, Literature and Goal
In this study, (8) humorous sonnets and (16) auto-biography sonnets have been analyzed in three levels of Appreciation, Judgment and Affect based on the theory of evaluation, which is one of the three systems that make up the interpersonal role. The main measurement tool in this study is frequency. After reviewing the mentioned sonnets in the three mentioned levels and collecting the necessary data, the data related to each subject were described and used in their place, and finally, the obtained frequencies in each section were analyzed and interpreted. The humorous and auto-biography sonnets have been selected based on thematic classification in the article "A new look at Hafiz's sonnet style and thematic classification of sonnets". On the other hand, there are various works related to Holliday's theory of linguistics that have been used as literature in this paper; Books such as "Language, Texture, and Text, Aspects of Language in the Socio-Semiotic Perspective" and "Towards Poetry Linguistics", and research articles such as, “A Study of Objective Noun Phrase in Persian from the Perspective of Halliday's Functional Grammar”, “Application of Function-oriented Teachings in the Analysis of Literary Texts”, "Stylistics of Hafiz's Sonnets based on the verb: Function-oriented Approach", "Analysis of Coherence and Cohesion in a Sonnet of Hafiz in Function-oriented Approach" and some more. The purpose of this study is to achieve the degree of conformity of the traits used in Hafiz’s humorous and auto-biography sonnets according to the microsystem of “Attitude” from the theory of evaluation and its relationship with the subject of sonnets.
Results and Discussion
The humorous and auto-biography sonnets are close in subject matter with reference to social, political, moral and intellectual issues; that's why these two poetic topics have been selected for study and analysis. Since the number of auto-biography ones is currently twice the number of humorous ones, this issue makes the study and analysis of the present study more accurate. According to evaluation theory, the adjectives in these sonnets are studied in terms of attitude microstructure in three areas of appreciation, judgment and affect. In each of these areas, adjectives are sometimes used in a descriptive role and sometimes as a noun-substitute in other grammatical parts of speech. Appreciation is a system by which phenomena and processes are measured and encompasses values that, under a general aesthetic group or a non-aesthetic group, give rise to social valuation; while judgment evaluates human behavior. At this level, the evaluation of human behavior is done with reference to a set of moral norms. Affect is the mental process of reactions and the characteristics of phenomena with respect to emotions. With regard to the above definitions, the three domains of appreciation, judgment and affect, measure and judge the quality or behavioral or physical characteristics of phenomena and human beings, and these cases are consistent with the concept of expressive adjective in Persian grammar; Therefore, in this research, words such as expressive adjectives have been studied and, of course, sometimes expressive adjectives replace nouns. In Hafiz's humorous sonnets, there are a total of 123 adjectives that can be studied in evaluation theory, of which 40 words are in descriptive role and 83 adjective replace nouns in the role of subject, complement, object, predicate, adverb, adverb and quasi-sentence; In addition, out of 40 descriptive words, 26 words are in the field of appreciation and 14 words are in the field of judgment. In the sonnets, of the total of 275 words studied, 89 cases are in the role of adjectives, of which 60 cases are in the category of appreciation and 28 cases are in the category of judgment and 1 case is in the category of affect. On the other hand, 186 words have been used as noun substitutes in verses, of which 90 are in the category of appreciation, 90 are in the category of judgment and 6 are in the category of affect.
Considering the number of auto-biography sonnets (16), which is twice the number of humorous sonnets (8), the number of words studied in the auto-biography sonnet (275) is about twice as many as the number of these words in humorous sonnets (123); This means that in both cases, the use of expressive adjectives has been the same. In both types of sonnets, the adjectives substituting for the nouns are more commonly used as poetic adjectives, and this increases the magnification, effectiveness and rhetoric of the poem. Considering the frequency of application of adjectives in the fields of appreciation, judgment and affect in both types of humorous and auto-biography sonnets, it is found that Hafiz's emphasis is on the use of adjectives that evaluate outward features. The difference between the two types of sonnets is in the frequency of application of noun substitution adjectives in the field of judgment. In auto-biography sonnets, however, the adjectives substitute for the noun in the field of judgment and appreciation are equal; in humorous sonnets, on the other hand, the field of judgment has been used four times. Using the interpersonal role in Halliday's theory, it can be seen that Hafiz, considering the subject of the sonnet, chose the words and was able to draw the atmosphere of the sonnet and have the greatest impact on the audience.
Aghagolzadeh, F, Kordzafaranloo, K. A., & Razavian, H. (1390). Stylistics of Hafiz's Sonnets based on the verb in Function-oriented Approach. Stylistics of Persian Poetry and Prose (Spring of Literature), Volume 4, Number ،1, 11 in a row, pp. 243-254.
Aghagolzadeh, Ferdows. (1384). Application of Function-oriented Teachings in the Analysis of Literary Texts. Journal of the Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Mashhad, Volume 38, Number 2, pp. 1-21.
Islami Nodoshan, Mohammad Ali (1374). The Endless Story of Hafiz. Tehran: Yazdan.
Amirkhanlu, M. (1394). Stylistics of Hafiz's sonnet poems based on the verb: Function-oriented Approach. Persian Literature, Volume 5, Number 2, (16th consecutive), pp. 169-186.
Anwari, H. & Ahmadi Givi, H. (1396). Persian Grammar 2. Tehran: Fatemi.
Iranzadeh, N. & Moradi, K. (1394). A Study of the Poetry of Qaisar Aminpour's Immortal Pain Notes Based on Halliday's Role-Playing Theory. Literary Research.
Pournamdarian, T., & Ishani. T. (1389). Analysis of Coherence and Cohesion in a Sonnet of Hafiz in Function-oriented Approach. Persian Language and Literature, Volume18, Number 67, pp. 7-43.
Hafiz Shirazi, Sh. M. (1359). Poems Collection. Edited and explained by Parviz Natel Khanlari, Tehran: Kharazmi.
Hejazi Fard, M., Emami, N. & Sorur Yaghubi, A. (1397). A new Look at the Style of Hafiz sonnet and the thematic classification of sonnets. Stylistics of Persian poetry and prose (Spring of Literature), Volume 11, Number 2, 40, pp. 131-151.
Halabi, A. A. (1377). Humor and Sense of Humor in Iran. Tehran: Behbahani.
Khamse, Sh. (1395). Analysis of the Panjare Poetry Discourse by Forough Farrokhzad from the Perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics. Literary Criticism Studies, Volume 11, Number 44, pp. 9-40.
Razmjoo, H. (1372). Literary Types and Their Effects in Persian Language. Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi.
Zarrinkoob, A. (1373). From Rendan Alley. Tehran: Sokhan.
Shamisa, S. (1389). Meanings (Second Edition). Tehran: Mitra.
Qaisari, I. (1393). One Point of This Meaning. Tehran: Jami.
Majidi, S. (1390). Making Information in Persian Language in the Framework of systematic Function and the Grammar of role and reference. Letter of the Academy, Academy of Persian Language and Literature, No. 7, Special Issue, pp. 183-208.
Mosaheb, Gh. (1391). Persian Encyclopedia, Tehran: Amirkabir.
Moein, M. (1357). Persian Culture. Tehran: Amirkabir.
Mohajer, M. & Nabavi, M. (1393). Towards the Linguistics of Poetry. Tehran: Ad.
Natalkhanli, P. (1373). Persian Grammar. Tehran: Toos.
Vahidian Kamyar, T. (1393). Innovative from an Aesthetic Point of View. Tehran: Samt.
Halliday, M., & Hassan. R. (1395). Language, Texture and Text: Aspects of Language in Socio-semiotic Perspective. Translated by Mojtaba Manshizadeh and Tahereh Ishani, Tehran: Elmi.
Martin, J. & White. P. (2005). The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. Hampshire New York: Macmillan.