بیا که ما سپر انداختیم، اگر جنگ است (بررسی آماری و تحلیلی واژگان جنگی و حماسی در غزلیات سعدی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی/ دانشگاه هرمزگان

2 ارشد

چکیده

چکیده
یکی از ویژگی­های غزل سعدی، حضور هم‌زمان دو مفهوم «عشق» و «جنگ» در بافت شعر عاشقانه یا به تعبیر دیگر خلق تصاویر عاشقانه با استفاده از واژگان، تعابیر، و تصاویر جنگی است. در این مقاله ضمن ارائه­ی داده­های آماری دراین‌خصوص، به بررسی دلایل حضور و بسامد قابل‌توجه واژگان و ترکیبات جنگی در غزل عاشقانه­ی سعدی پرداخته شده است. درمجموع 637 غزل، 1014 مورد واژگان و ترکیبات جنگی همچون: خون، کشتن، شمشیر، تیغ، تیر، ناوک، خدنگ، کمان، کمند و غیره مشاهده می­شود. در بررسی دلایل این موضوع، موارد مطرح‌شده در این پژوهش ازاین‌قرار است: الف: پشتوانه­ی اسطوره­ای ایزدبانوان عشق و جنگ در گستره­ی فرهنگی ایران، بین‌النهرین، یونان و روم و ادامه­ی این الگو در فضای شعری پیش از سعدی ازجمله الگوی «معشوق جنگجو» در ادبیات حماسی، غنایی و عامه؛ ب: اوضاع تاریخی، اجتماعی و سیاسی عصر سعدی با تأکید بر حمله­ی مغول و تأثیرات آن بر فضای شعر فارسی؛ ج: عوامل اجتماعی ازجمله سابقه­ی حضور غلامان ترک و رواج «شاهدبازی» در گستره­ی فرهنگی و شعری زمان سعدی و پیش از آن؛ د: تداعی معانی به‌عنوان مفهومی مشترک میان روان‌شناسی و ادبیات و نقش آن در گسترش و تکرار واژگان و ترکیبات جنگی در شعر عاشقانه­ی سعدی.
 
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Come, for if it is a war, I have thrown my shield (A statistical and analytical study of war and epic words in Saadi's sonnets)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Ansari 1
  • Asadollah Nowruzi 1
  • Maryam Gharehkhanian 2
1 Associated Professor/ Hormozgan University
2 M.A
چکیده [English]

 
Zahra Ansari, Assistant Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Hormozgan University (Email: Ansari.zahra@yahoo.com)
Asadollah Nowrozi, Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Hormozgan University
Maryam Qara Khanian
Master of Persian Language and Literature
 

Introduction

One of the salient features of Saadi's lyric poems is the abundance of words, compositions and images that describe violence and the battlefield. These words are usually used when portraying a lover or expressing a love state. Considerable use of words related to the battlefield and describing a violent, bloodthirsty, archer and warrior lover is an undeniable characteristic of Saadi's lyric poems and more or less classical Persian love poems as a whole. The abundance of such words and combinations related to war, including battlefield tools, description of the battlefield and poetic images and descriptions of such words and combinations in Saadi's love sonnets, deserves to be studied, pondered and analyzed from the viewpoint of various approaches. In the present paper, in an attempt to find the motives behind this, various fields of humanities including history, mythology and psychology have been used and the reasons suggested by the authors have been presented based on poetic evidence and the findings of other researchers of the field.
3) Methodology, Objective and Background
The present study is a qualitative library research. The researchers first extracted the data from the text of Saadi's lyric poems and then analyzed them using other sources. The purpose of this study is to determine the number of words, interpretations and images related to the battle in Saadi's lyric poems and determining what could be the reason for the frequent use of such words and interpretations and images.
To date, no similar research has been conducted on the reasons for the abundance of war words in the structure of Saadi's love lyric. The closest research to the present paper is the paper of Dr. Hassan Zolfaghari entitled "Warrior Lovers in Love Poems and Folk Myths", which appeared in the bi-quarterly journal of "Persian Language and Literature." Excerpts from the book "History of the Body in Literature" authored by Seyyed Mehdi Zarghani et al. (2016) can further be considered close to the subject of the present study; However, in neither of these two researches, Saadi's lyric poems are not the main subject discussed. In the section on mythological backgrounds of this research, the paper "A hypothesis on the similarities between Anahita and the beloved of Iranian poets" written by Dr. Alireza Mozaffari, which appeared in the "Journal of the Faculty of Literature and Humanities of Mashhad" in 1995, is preferable; However, again in this paper, Saadi's lyric poems are not the main subject of the research.
4) Discussion
Statistical scanning of this study indicates that in 637 of Saadi's sonnets, all words and combinations related to war number 1014 cases, of which the most repeated is the  source verb of "killing/murder", which along with its grammatical derivatives and synonyms is used 152 times as a whole; Images such as "killed by the sword", "killed by crossing", "killed by an arrow", "killed by a razor", and "coming to kill" are also included in the statistical data of this group. The next most frequent word is "blood" and its derivatives and illustrative compounds, which with 3 repetitions, is the most frequent word in Saadi's sonnets. The word "enemy" and its compounds, with 125 repetitions, has the third place, and the word "arrow" and its compounds, in addition to "lasso" and its compounds with 88 repetitions, occupy the fourth place. "Sword" and its compounds with 58, "Blade" and its compounds with 57, "bow" and its compounds with 49, "captive" and its compounds with 43, "shield" and its compounds with 38, "looting" and its compounds with 37, "injury" and its compounds with 32, "war" and its compounds with 31, "army and its compounds with 18, "chain" with 12, "arrow" and its compounds with 11, "navak" (a kind of arrow) and its compounds with 9, "khadang" (a kind of arrow) with 7, "armor" and its compounds with 6,  “joshan" (a kind of armor) with 5, "peeling" with 3, "weapon" and its compounds with 3, "dagger" with 2 "spear", "caparison" and "catapult" with 1 appearances are found in Saadi's lyric poems.
To find the original motives behind the abundance of words and images related to war in Saadi's sonnets, the following items were examined: 1- Mythical backgrounds (the continuation of the old model of the goddess of love and war in poetry); 2- Manifestation of the political situation during the poet's life and his poetry, including the Mongol invasion and the Crusades; 3- The prevalence of pederasty in Saadi's time and the entry of the element of Turkish slaves into the social and literary contexts; 4-Association of meanings and symmetry, especially the two principles of "proximity" and "contradiction". The proximity of "sword", "razor", "arrow", "bow" and "shield" and the contradiction of "peace" with "war", "friend" and "enemy" are among the most frequent patterns of association of meanings in Saadi's sonnets.
5) Conclusion
In all Saadi's 637 sonnets, 1014 types of words and combinations related to the battlefield have been detected. Among these words, the source verb "killing" and its compounds have the most repetition. After that, comes “blood" and its derivatives. The words "enemy", "arrow", "bow", "sword", "razor", "arch", "captive", "shield", "plunder", "wound", "war", "army " ,"Chain ", "arrow ",  "navak"," khadang","armor","joshan","Peeling"," Weapon", "Dagger", "spear", "caparison" "catapult"  come in the next places. The main subject of this research is to investigate the reasons for the frequent presence of war words and images in Saadi's sonnet. In general, the reasons for the abundance of words related to war in Saadi's lyric poems can be presented as follows: A factor that has provided the ground for this fact is the existence of the goddesses of "love" and "war" in the myths of Mesopotamia, Iran, Greece and Rome, many years before the beginning of history. Furthermore, the pattern of the "warrior lover" is linked to the theme of pederasty and the presence of Turkish slaves in the cultural sphere and poetic atmosphere of Iran, especially in the centuries before Saadi and his contemporaries. Also, the political situation of the poet's time, and in particular the devastating attacks of the Mongols, has made the mental and poetic atmosphere of the country warlike. Finally, the two principles of "proximity" and "contradiction" in the association of meanings are also the reasons for the frequent presence of war words in Saadi's love sonnets.
 
7) References (books)
1- Iqbal Ashtiani, Abbas, (2000), History of the Mongols, seventh edition, Tehran: Amirkabir Press.
2- Eliyadeh, Mircha, (2014), Shamanism: Ancient Techniques of Ecstasy, translated by Mohammad Kazem Mohajeri, third edition, Qom: Religions Press.
  3- Anwari, Ali Ibn Mohammad, (1994), Divan (two volumes), fourth edition, by Mohaddaghi Modarres Razavi, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Press.
4- Bahar, Mehrdad, (2003), a Research in Iranian Mythology, Fourth Edition, Tehran: Agah Press.
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8- Zarghani, Seyed Mehdi et al., (2019) History of the body in literature, first edition, Tehran: Sokhan Press.
9- Saunders, JJ, (1985) History of Mongol Conquests, translated by Abolghasem Halat, second edition, Tehran: Amirkabir Press.
11- Saadi, Mosleh Al-Din, (1998) Divan Ghazaliyat, by Dr. Khalil Khatib Rahbar, 10th edition, Tehran: Mahtab Press.
11- Political, Alia Akbar, (1978) Psychology in terms of education, eighth edition, Tehran: Dehkhoda Bookstore and Ghatre Press.
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 15- Safa, Zabihaullah, (1999) History of Literature in Iran and in the Realm of Persian Language, Twelfth Edition, Tehran: Ferdows Press.
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18- Guiri, Susan,(2007), Anahita in Persian Myths, First Edition, Tehran: Phoenix Press.
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Papers:
1- Aidenloo, Sajjad. (2009)."Lady Hero". Journal of Iranian Studies, No. 13, pp. 11-24
2- Kharazmi, Hamid Reza. (2016). The relationship between symmetry and association of meanings and their evolution,Quarterly Journal of Literary and Rhetorical Research, Fourth Year, Issue 13, pp. 57-75
 3- Zulfiqari, Hassan. (2015)."Warrior Lovers in Love Poems and Folk Tales."  Bi-Quarterly Journal of Persian Language and Literature, Year 22, Number 77, Autumn and Winter, pp.91-114
 4- Shamisa, Sirus. (2014).the reason for Saadi's silence. The 16th Saadi Studies book, by Kourosh Kamali Sarvestani.
5- Sarfi, Mohammad Reza and Jafar Eshghi. (2009)."Positive manifestations of anima in Persian literature". Journal of Literary Criticism, No. 3. Pp. 59-88
6- Muzaffari, Alireza. (2002). "Hypotheses on the similarities between Anahita and the beloved of Iranian poets". Journal of Mashhad Faculty of Literature and Humanities, No. 1 and 2, Year 35, pp. 1-4
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Saadi's sonnets
  • Love
  • war
  • warrior lover
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