عنوان مقاله [English]
Sanai Ghaznavi, is considered one of the most important cultural creators in Iran. The reason why Sanai is called the epoch-maker is the creation of backgrounds in Persian poetry that were not so prominent before him and many after him owe it to him. Sana'i's influence has been manifested in the minds and consciences of the spiritual thinkers after him, in various fields, such as his literary-poetic themes and his special mystical way. Attar, Rumi, Najmuddin Dayeh, Roozbehan Baqliashirazi, Shahabuddin Suhrawardi, Jami and many others have been influenced by Sanai. Most of the mystical works of the sixth century, especially the mystical interpretation of Kashf al-Asrar Wa-Uddt al-Abrar, despite its contemporaneity with the poet, have used Sana'i poetry more than any other work in various mystical fields. From this perspective, Sanai's cultural creation in the spiritual realm of Iran is obvious due to his many influences in the minds and consciences of the poets after him. Cultural creation is a rare and elusive category and arises from individual wisdom and a special historical capacity. In this sense, Sanai can rightly be called a cultural creator; Because not only did he add a new atmosphere to Iranian thought and poetry, but he also devised a new design in the ode and established and valued themes such as the critique of the lord of power and the poetry of Qalandar and Moghaneh. Of course, Sanai's approaches in terms of creating a new school and his wide-ranging influence on his later works bring him closer to the field of culture creating. One of the most prominent aspects of Sanai's cultural creation in the realm of poetry is Qalandar and Moghaneh, so that most of the themes of Sanai Qalandar are explained and nurtured in the poems of the poets after him. Contrary to the common view of the form of the ode, which is generally considered to be a vehicle for asceticism, admonition and praise; Sanai has used the ode of the poem to express his Qalandar teachings due to its descriptive atmosphere. After analyzing all the odes of Sanai from the perspective of Qalandar and Kharabat contexts, we have come to the conclusion that the components of Qalandar on which Sanai has based its spiritual-literary worldview in a symbolic field; are: Conflict of sacred paradigms with blasphemous and Kharabati paradigms; Criticism and rejection of traditions and taboos; Shatah and Tamat as Qalandariyat; Defending the devil; The value of disbelief as faith; Relying on Blamefulness; The creation of a lover in the image of Qalandar and improvidence. The culture creation of Sanai in Qalandari was revealed by analyzing the works of contemporary and post-Sanai poets, such as Ein al-Qudat Hamedani, Attar, Maulana, Hafez and Iraqi, and led them to the fact that they are derived from the various components of Qalandar. The background of this research can go back to the days of Sanai and his infamy. Sanai's effectiveness dates back to his own time, and to this day, Sanai scholars have looked at it from a variety of perspectives. From the Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani and Rumi Balkhi to the present day when Professor Mohammad Reza Shafiei Kadkani (1372) in the book Whips of conduct and Dr. Reza Ashrafzadeh (1374) in the book Ab-e-Atash-e-Furuz and Dr. Mohammad Jafar Yahaghi and Dr. Mehdi Zarghani (1397) In the preface to the correction of Hadiqah al-Haqiqah, there are clear references to the extent of Sana'i's literary influence, but the present article has been compiled only in the field of odds, focusing on culture creating and relying on Qalandar concepts. The presentation of mystical symbolism with the presence of the first Qalandari paradigms, including Sana'i creations and cultural creations in the field of Iranian thought. Sanai culture-creation is also evident in world literature; As some scholars believe, Dante was influenced by Sir al-'Abbad Sanai in the Divine Comedy. Like Masnavi and Ghazal, Sanai's odds have been influential in the field and time after him, both due to their critical approach and critique of the lord of power, and due to its special mystical discourse, and many poets have welcomed him. One of the most important subjects that has a special prominence in Sanai's odds and in a way, has a prominent role in his culture creation; Qalandari look, with all its dimensions. Although Qalandar's approach to Sufism existed before Sanai, a comprehensive poetic view of it and the symbolic establishment of this field of Iranian mysticism occurs for the first time in Sanai's poems; To the extent that many scholars believe that the transformation of Qalandaran's image into transcendent examples and the creation of the first Qalandari backgrounds in mystical poetry has been studied from the perspective of Sanai's pioneering and cultural creation. By examining Sanai's odds, it can be seen that Sanai is the initiator of a style with characteristics such as infidelity, sabotage, blame, randy, Qalandari and in general, which are reflected in many poems of poets after him such as Saadi, Attar, Mowlan , Iraqi, Hafez, etc. are repeated and evolved. Pre-Sanai's odds were mostly used to express the themes of praise and admonition, but Sana'i's culture creation in the ode is due to the fact that he breathed new life into it and promoted the teachings of Qalandar and Muganeh. Sanai has also used the capacity of the ode to reflect the image of the Qalandariyyah and the creation of the ideal state resulting from this frequent motif, in all its dimensions - from the themes of ruin to the teachings of blasphemy. A careful analysis of Sanai's poems reveals that one of his most important (if not the most important) poetic themes is his thoughts of Mallamati and Qalandari; In this way, the semantic field of other teachings has been constructed around this macro-narrative. The analysis of Sanai's odds has led us to the fact that the components of Qalandar literature in his view are formed in several main axes, which are: the beauty and behavior of the beloved is Qalandar and Negligence; Sacred paradigms are intertwined with blasphemous and destructive paradigms; Mystics and taboos have been criticized and rejected; Shatah and Tamat look like Qalandariyat; Defending the devil is the basis of Sanai's Qalandari thought; The essence and truth of religion and Islam, infidelity, reproach, is the basic element of Sanai and Randy Qalandari thought is an example of Qalashi model and Qalandari.