عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparative Analysis of Nima Yoshij's poem of "O' People" and Edward Munch's Painting of "Scream" with Emphasis on Expressionist Mechanisms
Zabiholah Byranvand; PhD. Student of Persian language and literature, Lorestan university, Iran. Email: Byz77@yahoo.com
Mohammad Khosravishakib; Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Lorestan University, Iran. (Corresponding Author)
Saeid Zohrevand; Assistance Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Lorestan University, Iran. Email: Zohrevand46@ gmail.com
Bahman Karamollahi; Assistance Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Lorestan University, Iran. Email: B.karamolahi@ gmail.com
The school of expressionism is one of the manifestations of modern art in the early twentieth century, which first began in painting. Influenced by this school in various branches of art and literature, outstanding works were created. "Scream" by the Norwegian Edward Munch is one of the expressionist paintings that has always been the model of many artists. Western poets, influenced by the school of Expressionism, made fundamental changes in the rules of poetry. Due to its many capabilities, poetry became a suitable space for reflecting expressionist themes. In the contemporary period, Iranian artists and writers, considering the conditions of the time and familiarity with Western culture and civilization, created works that are very similar to Western literary and artistic works. One of these works is the poem "O' People" composed by Nima Yoshij, which is very similar to the painting "Scream" in terms of its expressionist principles. The existence of common and expressionist elements in the poem "O' People" and the painting "Scream" led the authors of the article to analyze and study these two works comparatively.
2. History, goals and Methodology
The research method of the article is qualitative and analytical-comparative. The authors have not seen any article or book entitled "A Comparative Analysis of the Poetry of the "O' People" and the painting "Scream" with an Emphasis on the Expressionist Components ", but many books and articles on these works independently and separately., Written. "Critique of the poem “O’People""from the point of view of semiotics" by Hossein Payendeh (2008), who has achieved a different reading and perception of the poem "O' People". Taghi Pournamdarian and Mohammad Biranvandi also wrote an article entitled "Why is Nima called the poet of "O' People" "? (2006), have tried to address the structural possibilities and the role of formalistic arrangements in the success of this poem. "Semantic Study, the Relationship between Title and Painting" by Shabnam Sadat Radmanesh and Hamidreza Shairi (2013) have also examined visual signs and their relationship with the creation and consolidation of artistic meanings. The purpose of this article is to analyze the expressionist and common components of the two works to show that the poetry of "O' People" is not only a modern poem, but also has many expressionist attitudes.
The school of expressionism emerged in the contemporary period as a protest and anti-traditional current in the West. The school is based on introversion, escapism, and rebellion against traditional conventions. Nima Yoshij, a contemporary modernist poet, due to his familiarity with Western culture and literature and his deep understanding of the conditions of his time and society, fought against the rules and traditions of Persian poetry and was finally able to introduce a new form of poetry to Persian literature. In his poems, due to his special attitude towards modern life and way of expression, traces of Western literary and artistic schools are visible. The poem "O' People" is not one of the famous works that has many visual aspects and expressionist themes. This article comparatively analyzes the common and expressionist principles and components of this poem with the painting "Scream". The most important expressionist components of "O' People" poetry and the cryptocurrency are: metaphor of affliction, expressionist outcry, exaggeration and emphasis, meaningless characters, symbolism, and the one-act scene.
The existence of expressionist principles and components in the poetry of human beings and the "scream" painting shows that these two works are not only modern, but also carry a bitter message of the death of human values in contemporary society. Fear and anxiety are among the most important inner feelings that are embodied in the poetry of the people and the shout board and infect the audience. This fear and anxiety is the product of human indifference and painlessness, which is immersed in the sea of modernity and modern industry. The meaningless characters of the two works, in fact, represent the human beings of contemporary society who feel lonely despite scientific and technological advances. These characters have an expressionist presence in the poetry of the "O' people" and the "scream". The expressionist cry that resonates in the poetry of human beings and the "Scream" painting, in fact, expresses the pains and sufferings that take modern man away from his identity day by day. The poem of the "O' people" has a narrative and theatrical structure and visually, it is very similar to the shout board. All events take place in a slice of time and in one scene, and the audience communicates with both effects by watching this scene.
The poetry of "O' people" and the painting of " scream", with a philosophical and religious background, depict the worthlessness and industrialization of modern man. The intellectual climate of twentieth-century societies was influential in the creation of similar literary and artistic works among different nations. The similarity of the themes and structural elements of the poetry of "O' people" and the painting of "scream" were influenced by the atmosphere of the societies of that time. The presence of expressionist elements in the structure of "O' people" and the shout-out board shows that the audience is facing an unreal effect. Scary and terrifying atmosphere, seeing the indifference and meaninglessness of modernism, using symbolic patterns to convey fear, anxiety and public outcry, striving for public awakening and emphasizing emotional experiences are some of the most prominent expressionist and common signs. They are quite effective in the success and permanence of these two works. In "O' people" poetry, the artistic use of the principle of surprise, telegraphic expression, visual character in the reflection of human ideals, emphasis on the short and emotional stanza of "I-Adams" and the appropriate use of sound and color of words to create space and Staging is one of the most important features that make it a modern poem.
5.Keywords: Expressionism, Comparative Analysis, "O' people", "Scream".
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