عنوان مقاله [English]
discussion the evolution of phoneme in Verse (From the beginning of Persian poetry until the end of the eighth century AH)
PhD student of Persian Languages and literatuer , University of Isfahan
**D.r Hosain Aghahosaini
Professor of Persian Languages and literatuer , University of Isfahan .
Language is one of the most important tools for conveying a message between human beings and it is used artistically by poets. Poets use the possibilities of language to express their abilities and try to acquaint others with their world. Attention and accuracy in the use of phoneme and linguistic words can help the poet to achieve his goal and induce the literary type of the work. This study, by discussion fourteen Persian Verse from the beginning to the end of the eighth century (64485 bits in total) in a complete induction manner and using Simia software, was able to track the evolution of phonetics and phonology in these poems. This research has also paid attention to the views of European experts such as: Grammont, Genette and Persian language such as: Farabi, Ibn Sina and others. Based on the obtained results, Fricative phoneme are the most used in these Verse. Nasal phoneme and fluent phoneme are the next step in facilitating reading and creating psychology in reading. Although explosive phoneme are widely used in early poems, they fade due to the predominance of Iraqi style and lyrical literature.
key words: Explosive, phoneme, language , Fricative, Verse
No research has been found on the Review of the study of the evolution of phoneme in Verse. However, some researches can consider the Review of this study. In 1396, a study entitled " phoneme and Meaning in Shahnameh" was conducted by Gita Zakeri et al., Who studied a limited number of lyrical and epic verses of Shahnameh in terms of phoneme. Studies in the field of typology of lyrical literature and epic literature such as: model of epic language study written by Asghar Shahbazi et al. In 2011, content and formal characteristics of lyrical literature by Rahman Mushtaq Mehr et al. That lyrical literature has an , Fricative phoneme and epic literature has used an explosive phoneme. Therefore, accurate, comprehensive and scientific Study the subject seems necessary. In this research, fourteen Verse from the beginning of Persian poetry until the end of the eighth century were studied in a completely inductive way (the verses of these Verse in the number of 64485 bits). These Verse are: Vargheh and Golshah from Ayouqi, Wiss and Ramin from Fakhreddin Asad Gorgani, Khosrow and Shirin and Nezami and Majnoon and Leily, Haft Peykar from Nezami, Azhar and Mazhar from Nazari Ghohestani, Shirin and Khosrow and Majnoon and Leily and Hasht Behesht and Khazer Khan and Dowalrani by Amir Khosrow Dehlavi, Eshghnameh by Hassan Dehlavi, Homay and Homayoun and Gol and Nowruz by Khwaju Kermani and Jamshid and Khorshid by Salman Savoji. This study, by examining the phoneme of the verses of the fourteen Verse and their Phonetic in Simia software, seeks to track the evolution of the phoneme and phonetic characteristics of the Verse in question.
The phoneme of language are divided into two categories: vowels and consonants. These phoneme sometimes induce an idea or state or feeling, which are called Effectiv phonemes, and sometimes they are neutral due to other factors (see: Qavimi, 2004: 20).
Vowels: Since vowels are the same musical notes that affect human corners, they come in many forms. Including: Zir note, Bam note, dark note, light note, incomplete note, bright note, etc.
Consonants: Consonants also play an important role in Effectiv thoughts, feelings and thoughts. Grammont examines these words from two aspects: a: The nature of pronunciation, 2- Phonological of place (see: Grammont, 1960: 387). In terms of the nature of pronunciation, consonants are divided into several groups: , Explosive, Fricative, nasal, fluent, trembling (see: Deihim, 1979: 44-60). In lyrical language, Fricative phoneme usually take precedence over other phonemes, and this is derived from the calming effect of these phoneme. trembling and fluent are also softly spoken in the current language and evoke the quality of slippery, flowing and fluid "(Zakir et al., 2017: 113). Lyrical language should be softer, deeper and gentler than epic language. From the point of Phonological place of the Verse, in the Verse of Vargheh and Golshah, Haft Peykar, Majnoon and Leily, Khazer Khan and Dowalrani and Homay and Homayoun, the most use of explosive phoneme can be seen. This type of phoneme has been used the least in Leily and Majnoon, Gol and Nowruz poems. The reason for this is the literary type of the works and their martial spirit. Fricative phoneme that have been used the most in the Verse of Khosrow and Shirin, Leily and Majnoon and Gol and Nowruz. The least amount of use of this type of phoneme based on Literary style, geographical location, literary type of the Verse, etc. belongs to Vargheh and Golshah, Khazer Khan and Dowalrani. Nasal and fluent phonemes are influenced by each other. However, nasal are mostly a function of Fricative, Because they are closer to Fricative in terms of phonetic physics and denominators than fluent. The fluent also have a facilitating role, and along with the Fricative and nasal, they make the phonetic space more conducive to the lyrical language. Inductive phoneme and Effectiv phoneme have experienced many ups and downs in the Verse of Persian literature.
In the study of the evolution of sound in fourteen Verse in Persian poetry until the end of the eighth century AH, four types of phoneme were studied. Explosive and obstructive phoneme, although initially widely used in terms of style, are gradually used in less cases due to the prevalence of lyrical literature and linguistic development, and every poet, if he has full knowledge of these types of phoneme, to induce limited purposes of them. Profit. The second category is Fricative phonemes, which, based on the type of lyrical literature and their extensive functions in inducing various emotions in the fifth century onwards, are given more attention and a wide range of them are reflected in the poems of poets nasal and fluent phonemes also mature with Fricative phonemes and reduce the intensity and thickness of obstructive and explosive phonemes.
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