عنوان مقاله [English]
Mohammad Reza Pashaei
Assistant Professor of Language and Literature, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran.
PhD in Persian Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, Iran.
Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Zanjan University, Iran
Mashrote is a critical period in social life of Iran in which Iranian women are regarded as an active force and feminism movement and association helps them to know their rights. This movement effect literature as well. Although the number of women poets is not comparable with men ones but most of them are impressive cultural characters, from Mahsetii up to cotemporary poets. Studying men images in women poems show us their mind about men thus we will be able to understand the poems much better.
In this paper we are going to study the presence of men in the poems of women. In their verses, man is regarded as beloved or simply a gender regarding to dichotomy into man and woman.
So, in this paper we will answer these questions: what the images are used for men in these three poets verses? What these images tell us about these poets thought about gender? All of their verses have been studied and some cases will be presented and analyzed. Findings show that these three poets have different look toward gender. Parvin is influenced by classic literature thus patriarchy more visible is her poems. Also, the individuality and egalitarianism in Simin poems is more than the rest.
Material and methods:
This research is of content analysis type. We extracted verses that directly or indirectly referred to men
The research method in this article is in the framework of qualitative content analysis and using library resources.
Among the dissertations and articles that provided a good platform for writing this article:
Ghagremai (1395) in an article studied Simin and Tofan fadvi poems comparatively and concluded that Iranian poets showed more emotions toward men.
Divsalar in his dissertation (1392) “evolution in Forogh thoughts and images” indicated the changes in her poem and rhetorical images.
Zarghani (2010); in the article Analysis of three contemporary female poets with an example of the common Iranian cultural tradition »describes the attitude of three contemporary female poets, Parvin Etesami, Simin Behbahani and Forough Farrokhzad with the cultural tradition of men.
Seyyed Rezaei (1389) in his article Woman in the Poetry of Parvin Etesami Simin Behbahani and Forough Farrokhzad has studied the concept of woman in the poems of these three poets
Marzbanehpour (1389) in "The effect of gender on the language of poetry of Parvin, Forough and Fatemeh Rakaei" considers poetry as a narrative of language. The result obtained from this dissertation is the effect of gender on literary language as well as standard language.
In this article, the individuality of women poets will be examined according to their view of men to determine what image of individuality and activity they had as a woman based on their view of men.
Results & Discussion
According to social identity theory individual`s identity indicates who they are in terms of the groups to which they belong. Those groups effect the individual`s characteristics. According to this theory, the individuality is defined based on the groups to which people belong. Women as a gender see their individuality in redefining the role of men, as the old patriarchal system was removing and the redefinition of the role of men and women was needed, so women achieved a new definition of their individuality. Studying the image of men in these poems is in fact a way to understand the individuality of these female poets much better.
According to what has been said, female poet`s texts were evaluated from the perspective of some of the concepts contained in social identity. The image of men in Parvin Etesami's poem does not go beyond indirect allusions. Parvin Etesami refers more to male roles and jobs than to the man himself as a gender. And this is because Parvin is very much influenced by classical Persian poetry. The rhetorical elements used in her poetry are very traditional and stereotypical, and even when she speaks of women's rights as a new and up-to-date fact, the rhetorical elements of her image are very old-fashioned. Equality was more prominent in Simin's poetry than the other two poets. Therefore, the individuality of Forough and Simin as a woman is much more than Parvin. Forough also has many direct references to men as a mistress as well as a separate gender. Therefore, the individuality of these two poets is much more reflected in their poetry than Parvin. Man has found explicit reference in Forough and Simin's poems, but in Parvin's poetry there are more indirect images based on male occupations. This explicit view of man as a gender indicates the evolution of imagery about men. Man as a lover or beloved in their verses shows the individuality of a woman.
Key words: man image, gender, Parvin Etesami, Simin Behbahani, Forogh Farokhzad.
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