عنوان مقاله [English]
Dr. Manouchehr Tashkori
Associate Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
PhD student in Persian Language and Literature, Shahid Chamran University Ahvaz
Speech act is considered as one of the linguistic and philosophical theories of language application. In this theory, the application of verbs in the structure of conversation is examined and analyzed according to the situation of speech and social relations.On the other hand, the narration of Mantegh-o-Teyr, considering that it's anindicator narrative text in the field of narrative discourse, is based on dialogues, and its narration intersects with the speech act in connection with the semantic structure of dialogic verbs and sentences and is examined in the systematizing structure of the story or its overall narrative.
Speech act theory is one of the most important theories in the use of words and sentences. In this theory, the way of functioning, system and rules of dialogues, words and sentences in the syntactic and semantic structure are examined and the regularity of sentences and practical expressions in thematic and executive actions are also considered. The theory of speech action, first developed by John Austin and later by his student John Searle, nurtured, matured, and categorized it directly and indirectly into the five categories of "descriptive, persuasive, Commitment, declaration and emotion."
Research method, background and purpose
The research is descriptive-analytical and is based on library sources. After analyzing the dialogues based on spoken verbs and paying attention to Searle's theory of speech action and speech events, the authors analyze the situational verbs and contextual contexts of Mantegh-o-Teyr according to the characteristics of this theory, five speech acts; Declarative, persuasive, emotional, declarative and commitment and their implementation are statistically discussed.
Regarding to the background of this research, it should be said that various researches have been done on speech act in some poems; Such as "Serl's speech act and its connection with gender and social status in Garshasbnameh" by Maryam Jalali and MasoumehSadeghi (2016), "Attar Mantegh-o-Teyrand Conversational Logic" by Ahmad Razi and Mohsen BatlabAkbarabadi (2010) alsothearticle "Analysis of the Narrative Structure of Attar's Poems" by BatlabAkbarabadi and Razi (2012) and the article "A Study of Adaptation in the Narration of Persian and Arabic treatise of Birds from the Perspective of the Connection of John Searle's Theory of Speech Action and More" Gerard Genette Text (1399) by Samira Shafiei. The aim of this study is to analyze the verbs and situational context of the dialects of Mantegh-o-Teyraccording to the characteristics of speech act theory.
Speechact of verbs in Attar'sMantegh-o-Teyr
Attar expresses his pure and symbolic mystical thoughts in a narrative structure and in an allegorical way, in the form of long poems using dialogues between birds and birds, or a third-person narrative (poet) or anecdotes quoted from Hudhud has mentioned it in the form of a story. He introduces the main narrative in the dialogue between the hooded and the birds, in which questions and answers are exchanged and the type of speech acts of both is expressed as direct or indirect expressive acts.
According to Searle's theory of speech act, Attar and Hudhud or birds or sub-narratives (anecdotes and allegories), spoken verbs or thematic verbs in speech are more implicitly expressed by executive action,which in Attar's narrative have a declarative (descriptive) state and in Hudhud's narration they contain more declarative or persuasive speech action (warning or suggestion), but the birds's narrative is more declarative and emotional and the sub-narratives are more descriptive. .
Hudhud's speech act in Mantegh-o-Teyr
Hudhud's speech act in expressing the valleys, answering the birds' excuses, conversations, anecdotes and allegories are more of a kind of expressive and persuasive action to ignite the flames of desire in the Taliban. Hudhud's expressive speech action (descriptive or explicit) is mixed with persuasive (command) speech action and is in line with the main narrative line. Hudhud uses less emotional descriptive action than descriptive and persuasive; in the same way that his emotional expression has been presented as a thematic verb in speech in descriptive speech action, but the declarative action has progressed to the middle level; because the main narrative itself is presented by declarative speech act.
Speech act of birds inin Mantegh-o-Teyr
Birds' speech acts in conversation with Hudhud are more expressive and emotional, and the role of emotional action in their conversations in the danger of storytelling is such that it has led to the length and detail of the main narrative, but to some extent the descriptive speech action of birds is consistent with narration. Is. Also, the three actions of persuasion, declaration and commitment have not helped the completion of the narrative process in a transient way. Accrual action, like declarative and persuasive action, has been used to a relatively small extent in the narrative discourse of Hudhud and birds; Because in this prose poem, Hudhud has made a relatively acceptable commitment and promise to the birds and has made promises to them after meeting Simorgh and appearing before him.
The semantic function of the conversations of Hudhudand birds, according to the speech acts, has played a prominent role in advancing the narration which these conversations are quoted along with the main narration, as well as the speech act of the verbs during the direct or indirect expression method along with the main narration and the sub-narratives of Mantegh-o-Teyr, which are referred to as "anecdotes and allegories"; It has introduced a semantic and conceptual function to the whole narrative. The speech act of this prose poem has been studied separately in the conversations of Hudhud and birds with a method of analysis and statistics and the results show that the expressive action in the conversations of birds and Hudhud has a high percentage, but the actions Commitment speeches and declarations have not received much attention in these conversations; because each of the birds sought to express their excuse or describe their view of travel, which they mostly expressed in a descriptive and expressive way. While persuasive (suggested) speech act had a prominent place in Hudhud's conversations because he sought to bring the birds to his views and did not pay much attention to emotional speech act.
Speech Act, John R. Searle, Mantegh-o-Teyr, Attar, Narration.
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