عنوان مقاله [English]
The last reading of the " Akavan Sales's Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn"
1.Introduction and introduction
Among the various theories on semiotics and their evolution are the critical interests of the French-based American theorist Michael Rifatter (1924-2006), a structuralist linguist who specializes in semiotics. The poem is thought-provoking. In Rifater's semiotics, not only the reader's critical and creative effort is involved, but also his literary and linguistic knowledge and experiences are effective in understanding and receiving poetry. He based his theory on the nature and function of language in literary texts. Poetry deviates from its usual functions of understanding and receiving poetry based on the poem itself, using indirect language to refer to unnecessary things: changing the function of language in poetry from imitation to signage, creating grammatical statements in poetry, altering a central origin to create Poetry, the transformation of text into poetry by means of minimal writings with the three principles of multi-factor determination, transformation and expansion is one of the most important points in Rifater theory.
2.Research method, background and purpose
The research method is descriptive-analytical and its purpose is to read the semiotic reading of the Akavan Sales's Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn following can be considered about the research background:
1.Shariati Siasar (2011) who in his dissertation entitled "Analysis of the second millennium of mountain deer based on the theory of Rifater semiotics" using the above theory to the origins of philosophical thought such as thinking in He has dealt with life and death, human existence and place in it, and destiny and philosophical doubt.
2.Najafi (1396) who has interpreted the " Akavan Sales's Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn " based on Kristova's theory and using the symbolic and symbolic matter. The analysis of this poem is based on the critique of poststructuralist semiotics.
3.Hypothesis (2012) that in the article "Archetypal Critique of the Poetry of the Akavan Sales's Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn Mehdi Akhavan Sales" examines the poem from the perspective of archetypal critique and based on the archetypes of hero, old, shadow and self He has analyzed and dealt with symbols such as tree, mountain, valley, cave and spring.
"The Akavan Sales's Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn Fabeli, which is narrated in a narrative manner and in a logical way from the language of two pigeons, and in it, most of the mythical themes, elements and characters are used. And the poet has even recreated myths according to the needs and events of the time and in opposition to the situation of society and based on his mentality. The main content of the poem is political and apparently its hero is Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh. In linear reading, "The Akavan Sales's Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn " consists of eight verses, according to which "The Akavan Sales's Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn " is the story of a prince whose people have been enchanted and turned to stone. Like the common customs of many folk tales, he seeks guidance from two pigeons. We see that it prevents us from considering poetry through imitation and merely representation of an event, but in the second stage because of the nature of the language of poetry in which the reader is faced with a chain of apostasy and contradiction. The poem must be read reactively in order to decipher the signs in the text. "Reactive" or "retrospective" or "non-dynamic" or "interpretive" reading is done in a non-sequential way and using literary power from the end to the beginning of the text as a review, revision and comparison. "During this process, the reader, by testing the hypothesis formed in exploratory reading, goes beyond the level of meaning and seeks the meanings of poetry, and finally the matrix or network of poetry, which is the basic proposition of poetry. "It recognizes and unites poetry." Reactive reading helps to interpret and analyze poetry using techniques such as "accumulation" and "descriptive systems". The four lexical chains of "loneliness", "silence", "despair" and "water" are the core of Sangestan's story collections. In the poetry of the Akavan Sales, there are three descriptive systems of pigeons, the city of Sangestan and the prince, and the most important descriptive system is related to the "prince". With instances of multifactorial determination, transformation, and expansion, the minimum spellings of each poem can be obtained. The "Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn " has been written around three minimalist inscriptions: The first paragraph: the captivity of Iran in the hands of thieves and colonialists. Article 2: Removing Obstacles with the Guidance of the Wise Men Article 3: The Disappointment of "Determining Multi-Factors" means that the signs in the language used in poetry do not refer to non-poetic beings but give rise to semantic networks. It turns out that the connections between its components are internal and self-directed. The signs of the poem " Ghese – e - shahr – e – Sangestsn " also refer not to meanings outside the text of the poem but to the other signs of the mentioned poem and therefore create a closed orbit of specific signs. The prince, the city of Sangestan, pirates, trees, wells, doves, fire, caves, mountains, valleys, springs and dreams are the multi-factor determinations of this system. "Expansion" in this poem has made possible the abstract theme of "despair and despair" to certain images.
"The Tale of the City of Sangestan" is the product of the development of the origin of "despair and hopelessness" on which the meaning of the poem depends. This origin has expanded through processes such as accumulation, multifactorial determination, transformation, and descriptive systems. These components take poetry beyond the level of imitation, transform it into a meaningful and unified system, and can be analyzed with systematic semiotics. Has accepted. In this way, it can be seen that in the process of "accumulation", the Akavan Sales has chosen more objective words in the second chain, namely "despair and sorrow", which is the main theme of the issue, in order to make it more realistic. In "descriptive systems", the "prince" macro system is at the top of the other two micro-systems due to having more constellations. This confirms that poetry revolves around this character and the things that follow it. With the help of the "expansion" process, he has turned an abstract subject (despair) into three definite images, each of which corrects and intensifies the other.
Keywords: Refater, retrospective reading, Sangestan city story, semiotics
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